Linking Words

Linking-Words English Grammar-Online Study Care 24 - OSC24
What are 'connectors'? You must have read about connectors in your previous classes. Do you remember their uses? Now, let's read the passage below and try to underline the connectors.

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Now, talk about the italic/highlighted words with a partner. In pairs discuss the following questions:
a) What is a connector?
b) What different types of connectors are there in English?
c) What roles do connectors play in a sentence?

Let's try to describe Connectors.
Sentence Connectors are used to express relationships between ideas and to combine sentences.
There are various types of connectors. Let's try to look at them more closely. We can divide them into:

Coordinating Conjunctions:
They connect words, phrases and clauses. They are usually found in the middle of a sentence.
Examples:
He went to school and attended the classes. He is a meritorious boy but his brother is dull.
List of coordinating conjunctions:
for     and   nor   but   or    yet so

Correlative Conjunctions
They connect equal sentence elements together (like two nouns) and are always composed of two words.
List of correlative conjunctions:
both...and
not only...but also
not...but
either...or
neither...nor
whether...or
as...as

Examples:
She is not only a good student but also a social worker.
The book is neither interesting nor practical.

Subordinating Conjunctions
They connect a dependent clause and an independent clause and establish a relationship between them. They are used at the beginning of a sentence (with a comma in the middle separating the clauses) or in the middle of a sentence with no comma.
List of subordinating conjunctions
after
if
though
although
if only
till
as
in order that
unless
as if
now that
until
as long as
once
when
as though
rather than
whenever
because
since
where
before
so that
whereas
even if
than
wherever
even though
that
while



Examples:
If it rains, they will not play.
Wait here until she comes back.

List of linking adverbs and transition words:
They connect two independent clauses or sentences. They provide transition between ideas.
accordingly
however
nonetheless
also
indeed
otherwise
besides
instead
similarly
consequently
likewise
still
conversely
meanwhile
subsequently
finally
moreover
then
furthermore
nevertheless
therefore
hence
next
thus

Exercise 1
Now, read the following passage and discuss with your partner the uses of connectors.
Hasan's Picture
Hasan wasn't a very bright boy. Usually/Generally, he never stood second from the bottom in any test. However/Nevertheless, that morning in the art lesson, he had drawn a beautiful picture of a scarecrow in a field of maze. To his amazement/To his surprise, the drawing was the only one given full marks - ten out of ten - which made him for the first time in his life the best in the class! He had proudly pinned the picture up on the wall behind his desk, where it could be admired by all although/even though; it could not be seen from all corners of the class. Those who saw the picture liked it. As a matter of fact/Besides, it had been chosen to be printed in the School Magazine by the class teacher. Nevertheless/Besides, his talent in painting spread among the students and teachers.

Exercise 2
Let's read the English folktale given below and fill in the blank spaces with suitable connectors.
There were once three tortoises - a father, a mother……………..a baby. ……………..one fine morning during Spring, they decided……………..they would like to go for a picnic. They chose the place……………..they would like to go; a nice wood at some distance, ……………..they began to put their things together. They got tins of cheese, vegetables, meat and fruits. In about three months, they were ready. They set out carrying their baskets. ……………..eighteen months, they sat down for a rest. They knew……………..they were already half way to the picnic place. In three years they reached there. They unpacked……………..spread out the canned food.

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